Disorders of optic chiasm digital illustration

Disorders of optic chiasm Save

ICD-10 code: H47.4

Chapter: Diseases of the eye and adnexia

Disorders of Optic Chiasm

The optic chiasm is a crucial structure located at the base of the brain that plays a vital role in vision. It is the point where the optic nerves from both eyes come together and cross over, allowing for binocular vision. Any damage or disorder that affects the optic chiasm can result in visual disturbances and impairments.

Here are some common disorders of the optic chiasm:

  1. Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary adenoma is a non-cancerous tumor that grows on the pituitary gland, which is located just above the optic chiasm. As the tumor grows, it can compress the optic chiasm, leading to visual field defects such as bitemporal hemianopsia (loss of peripheral vision in both eyes).
  2. Optic Chiasm Glioma: A glioma is a type of brain tumor that can affect the optic chiasm. Symptoms may include blurred vision, double vision, or loss of peripheral vision. Treatment may involve surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
  3. Multiple Sclerosis: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, including the optic chiasm. MS can cause inflammation and damage to the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers, leading to vision problems such as optic neuritis and diplopia (double vision).
  4. Craniopharyngioma: A craniopharyngioma is a rare type of brain tumor that can occur near the optic chiasm. Symptoms may include headaches, vision problems, and hormone imbalances. Treatment may involve surgery, radiation therapy, or a combination of both.

If you experience any changes in your vision, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. A thorough eye exam and diagnostic imaging tests can help identify any disorders of the optic chiasm. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or other therapies depending on the underlying cause of the disorder.

In conclusion, disorders of the optic chiasm can cause significant vision problems and impairments. Early detection and treatment are crucial to prevent further damage and improve visual outcomes.