Polyglandular dysfunction digital illustration

Polyglandular dysfunction Save

ICD-10 code: E31

Chapter: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases

Polyglandular Dysfunction: Understanding Symptoms and Treatment Options

Polyglandular dysfunction is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects multiple glands in the body. It occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues, leading to the dysfunction of several glands.

There are two types of polyglandular dysfunction: Type 1 and Type 2.

Type 1 Polyglandular Dysfunction

Type 1 polyglandular dysfunction is also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). It typically affects children and young adults and involves the dysfunction of at least two of the following glands:

  1. Parathyroid glands
  2. Adrenal glands
  3. Thyroid gland
  4. Pancreas
  5. Ovaries or testes

In addition to gland dysfunction, individuals with Type 1 polyglandular dysfunction may also experience other symptoms such as chronic candidiasis, oral leukoplakia, and enamel hypoplasia.

Type 2 Polyglandular Dysfunction

Type 2 polyglandular dysfunction is more common than Type 1 and typically affects adults. It involves the dysfunction of at least two of the following glands:

  1. Adrenal glands
  2. Thyroid gland
  3. Pancreas

Individuals with Type 2 polyglandular dysfunction may also have other autoimmune disorders such as celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or lupus.

Treatment Options for Polyglandular Dysfunction

There is no cure for polyglandular dysfunction, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment options may include:

  • Hormone replacement therapy to replace hormones that are not being produced by the affected glands
  • Medications to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation
  • Dietary changes to manage symptoms of other autoimmune disorders
  • Regular monitoring of hormone levels and gland function

If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with polyglandular dysfunction, it is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to develop an individualized treatment plan that meets your unique needs and goals.

Overall, polyglandular dysfunction is a complex and rare disorder that requires ongoing management and care. With proper treatment and support, individuals with polyglandular dysfunction can manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.